disco ssd Reverse SSD technology? Why SSDs are getting worse in speed and lifespan

disco ssd

disco ssd Reverse SSD technology? Why SSDs are getting worse in speed and lifespan

harddriveSSD OEMdisco ssd Note: There is no advertising fee for this article! All product recommendations represent Kozuru’s personal views only disco ssd, welcome rebuttal. This article also applies to SD cards and USB flash drives.

SSD is recommended at the end.

want to speed up your computer disco ssd, replace HDD with SSD (SSDs) should be the most cost-effective option, our CPU can handle billions of cycles per second, but most of the time it is waiting for disk data to transfer data to it.

Now the capacity of SSDs is rising, but the price is decreasing, making the call for eliminating HDDs louder and louder, but evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of a hard disk should be considered from multiple dimensions, if only the pursuit of speed, often fall into the trap of invisibility. This article will give you a detailed introduction to all aspects that you should pay attention to when choosing an SSD, so that you can buy the most suitable SSD hard disk.

PS: It doesn’t matter if you don’t look at this paragraph, SSD-like technology appeared back in the 1950s, and by the 1970s-1980s, it was used for high-end supercomputing. However, it was still very expensive, and 5-figure dollars could only buy about 2–20 MB of capacity. Later, SSD technology was also used in the military and aerospace fields, and gradually appeared in consumer devices in 1990, but the life span was “only” about 10 years, and it was not until Windows 10 was released in 2015 that it officially began to be popularized.

the reason why it is called an SSD is because it does not have the moving parts and rotating platters like traditional HDDs, and the internal parts of the SSD are fixed.

The data in the SSD is stored in a memory chip called “flash”. There are two types of flash memory: NOR and NAND. Both flash memory chips consist of many floating-gate transistors, which are the smallest units that store data, just as the magnetic material in an HDD represents 1s and 0s. Transistors make up the grid, and depending on the number of transistors in the grid, the capacity of a single grid is between 256kb-4MB.

NOR differs from NAND by the way the units are wired. In NOR flash, the grid cells are connected in parallel and in series in NAND. This means that NOR flash memory requires more wires, so they are larger and more complex. NAND uses fewer wires, making it possible to package at higher density.

the end result is that NAND flash memory costs less and can have more storage space in the same volume, which makes it more popular, and the products for individual consumers are NAND. NOR flash memory is suitable for low-density, high-speed read-only applications.

SSD is faster than HDD because the SSD’s master knows the exact location of all meshes, so when the system needs to use a file, the SSD can directly give it the response time in nanoseconds.

a simple comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of SSDs and HDDs:

SSDs are faster than HDDs. Obvious; SSDs are less prone to breakage. Because the internal structure of HDD is mechanical, installation shaking can damage it, but SSDs are more afraid of static electricity and short circuit; SSDs are quieter. Also because of the mechanical structure of HDD, it is louder and heats more; HDDs are cheaper. HDDs cost around 1.4 – 2.1 gross per GB. SSDs are about 7 gross per GB; SSDs are more power efficient. If used on a notebook, it can improve battery life by an average of 45 minutes.

HDDs are better suited for cold storage. The smallest unit of information stored on the SSD will be lost, resulting in data loss, and it is generally recommended to power it on at least once a year. HDDs can go unpowered for longer, but the end result is lost.

Many friends buy solid state only to see capacity and speed, and accidentally step on the sinkhole of “flash memory particles”. Flash memory particles are constantly being upgraded and iterated, in order of version: SLC, MLC, TLC, QLC, QLC is the latest (but worst). The transistor is the smallest unit that stores data, you can think of the entire hard disk as a prison, each transistor unit is a cell, and the smallest unit of data storage electrons (bits) is the prisoner in the cell. Naturally, the more inmates there are in prison, the greater the hard drive capacity. Single-level unit SLC era, the number of prisoners was not large, and each prisoner could live in a single room, that is, only one data unit was placed in each unit; In the era of multi-level unit MLC, there are more prisoners (everyone’s demand for hard disk capacity increases), but the prison is so big, what to do? Only two prisoners can be locked up in one room, that is, two data units per unit;

the tertiary unit TLC era, it was found that it was not enough, so it began to lock three prisoners in one room.

and the latest technology QLC is a quadruple room. We all understand that the more people there are, the more difficult it is to manage, the lower the efficiency (slow reading and writing), the more people use a thing, the faster it wears out (short life).

SLC is the original technology, it has low density, so the capacity is relatively small, but the fastest speed, and the service life is very long, but because it is too expensive, it is basically only used in enterprise storage. Prices are often thousands or tens of thousands;

MLC is a compromise option, although it is inferior to SLC in some aspects, but after considering the price, capacity, life, speed is the most suitable product for individual consumers, do system disk or large file processing, about 3 times cheaper than SLC, Xiaoshu is more recommended to use MLC as a system disk or store important data (stop production if you don’t buy it);

TLC is denser, although caching technology is used, but the speed is still not as good as the first two, and the life is 2-10 times less than the first two. Suitable for ordinary consumers, it is no problem to make system disks, game disks, temporary disks (U disks, mobile hard disks, etc.). The price is about half as cheap as MLC, and Xiaoshu recommends using TLC as a system disk, warehouse to store movies and games, etc.;

four-level unit QLC, as the name suggests. Although consumers are complaining about QLC, they can’t stop the pace of manufacturers making money, and QLC’s solid-state drives are rapidly gaining popularity. Xiaoshu definitely does not recommend buying QLC.

SSD Every “technology upgrade” is the result of a trade-off, manufacturers are weighing costs and profits, consumers are weighing capacity and longevity, capacity is doubled, but the problem is also rising exponentially.

SLC uses two voltage changes to represent 0 or 1 (1bit), MLC uses 4 voltage changes to represent 11, 10, 01, 00 (2bit), TLC uses eight voltage changes (3bit), and QLC uses 16 (4bit). Each time the flash cell writes and modifies data, it changes the voltage state of the electron, and each state change results in isolated silicon oxide losses, which is the main cause of shortened life.

the average erasable cycles of LC. MLC is only 35000-10000 cycles. TLC is about 5000. And QLC, the vendor claims to be consistent with TLC, do you believe it? At present, the normal read and write speed of most NVMe protocols (described later) SSDs is about 1500 MB/s. But the QLC that is gaining popularity is only 80-160 MB/s (continuous write), which is slower than mechanical hard disks. The life of TLC should be more than 5 years, but QLC is only 3-5 years, since manufacturers have repeatedly stated that the new technology is good in all aspects, then why repeatedly shorten the hard disk warranty time? Different particles for different markets and groups of people is actually no problem, but most businesses will not specify the use of that kind of particles, because they want to mix different particles to sell, so that the “incomplete” new particles gradually replace stable old particles, a few years ago we still have a lot of MLC hard disk options, now almost only Samsung is still producing MLC hard disk, higher profit but less speed and life TLC has occupied the market.

In addition, flash memory used to be arranged in a single layer, but at a lower cost, manufacturers now almost all storage single stacks, called 3D flash. It’s not unusual to know that most of the 3D flash memory on the market these days. It is enough not to be fooled, there is no need to go into depth.

 flash memory particles have a high technical threshold, its business model is the same as memory, usually a number of manufacturers cooperation, the division of labor is generally Fab (production) and Design house (design), the final dominance must be in the hands of the producer (see Huawei and TSMC). People like SanDisk and Kingston belong to Design houses and package sellers, and the real big guys are still Fab that provides them with flash memory particles.

the manufacturers that can provide solid particles in bulk are:

Samsung: the leader in the storage industry, the first in the global market share, Samsung factories are on fire, and the price of solid state in the world has increased;

 hynix: second only to Samsung, with complete production capacity;

Western Digital: The leader of mechanical hard disks, but after several acquisitions, it also has the ability to produce its own flash memory particles;

Toshiba (renamed Kioxia in October)/SanDisk): Toshiba used to do memory and solid-state, and later abandoned the memory business, SanDisk technically does not have its own Fab, but it holds shares in Toshiba, so most of the products are the same as Toshiba, a shell. (SanDisk has been acquired by Western Digital and may also use Western Digital pellets, but is closer to Toshiba);

> Micron: The main business is memory, in 2006 it cooperated with Intel to produce solid particles, and later disbanded, but both companies have mastered solid particle research and development and production technology;

>Intel: After partnering with magnesium light to build its own solid state, in addition to the traditional 3D structure, Intel and magnesium light also collaborated to develop a new structure.

the above companies can be said to have mastered the lifeblood of the global solid state, and their own products use their own high-quality particles, which belong to the highest quality on the earth. But are there so many more solid-state brands in the world? Where do their pellets come from?

The particle production of SSDs is the same as that of CPUs, with high process accuracy and randomness, and not everyone is the same when stewed out of a pot: the cost of the CPU is the same, why not produce all i7?

granules are produced and subjected to rigorous testing, and the results are divided into raw (positive), white and black. The best quality original film will be put into the market with its own brand, but white film and black film can not be wasted, a small part will be used in their own low-end products (West Digital green disk), most of them will be sold to downstream manufacturers without self-production capacity, let them put their own brand to sell.

on the same wafer, the original film accounts for less than 1/2

larger downstream manufacturers can get the original film, white film, as for the black film, data is priceless, data is priceless….

 Xiaoshu only recommends everyone to buy the products of the original studio.

data-pid=”33NpJcRB”> main control is equivalent to a solid-state CPU, which manages and controls the storage unit for read and write operations, reasonably allocates tasks to the storage unit, and it is also a transfer station between memory and hard disk. The master control directly affects the SSD experience and life, and to some extent, the importance and technical content of the master control are higher than that of flash memory.

so not all original studios produce their own main controllers, and the main main control manufacturers are: Samsung, Toshiba (Kioxia), Micron, Hynix, Micron’s Intel flash memory and main control can be made by themselves.

but now more manufacturers besides Samsung choose to hand over the master control to specialized master control suppliers, such as Silicon Weather, Phison, Yunlian, JMict, and Realtek.

In addition, with the strategic development of domestic independent self-research, many domestic master control manufacturers have begun to speak, such as the domestic long-term storage particles + Lianyun main control Guangweiyi Pro SSD, which has been put on the shelves. Although it is not as good as first-line manufacturers such as Samsung, it has surpassed many second-rate leather manufacturers, which is the first step in the rise of giants. Interested friends can support it.

we only buy solid state There is no need to delve into the main control, as long as we remember to buy the original film of the big factory, because the big factory will not lose itself in the main control.

SSD There are currently three main form factors, which form factor should be selected depends on whether the motherboard slot supports.

2.5-inch SATA: This is the most common type, the same size as the notebook’s HDD (2.5 inches), all motherboards support SATA interface, installation is stress-free. It’s just that this size may not be fixed on some desktops, but that’s not a problem.

M.2: This is a rookie in recent years, has become the standard for ultra-thin notebooks, but it is also popular on desktops, it is comparable in size to memory sticks, most M.2 hard drives are 80mm and 22mm in length and width, but there are smaller ones, pay special attention when purchasing.

 add-on card (AIC): It uses the same PCIex4 or x16 interface as the graphics card, and is still much faster than SATA. But if you want to use a dedicated graphics screen, you may not be able to put the add-in card hard disk, and even if you put it down, it will be very compact, affecting the heat dissipation.

It should be noted that NVMe often appears with M.2, but they are not a thing, M.2 is just the form factor of SSD, NVMe refers to the interface form of SATA like SATA. M.2 solid-state also has a SATA interface.

NVMe is faster than SATA, the latest SATA III has a maximum throughput of 600MB/s, while NVMe can be up to 3500MB/s. So before buying NVMe M.2 solid-state, make sure your motherboard does support the NVMe interface.

However, the improvement of NVMe compared to SATA can only be truly reflected in sequential read/write, which means “only large file reading and writing is effective”, so you may not feel the difference for games and daily work. However, for video editing, rendering and photo processing, NVMe has obvious advantages.

Now the system automatically aligns in 4K, so no special action is required. This paragraph can be skipped. In ancient times, a sector of the hard disk was 512 bytes, and later the disk capacity was increased, and the sector size was upgraded to 4096 bytes, or 4KB. 4K alignment is the alignment of the starting sector of a partition to the starting position of a 4K sector. Because of the characteristics of SSD flash memory particles, 4K alignment will greatly increase its read and write speed, so 4K alignment was required when solid-state first became popular, but now it is not necessary, and the system will automatically 4K alignment.

If you are not worried, you can use this method to see if the computer is 4K aligned, and manual 4K alignment: Windows 4K alignment method.

capacity not only affects life, but also affects read and write speed and life. For example, the Samsung PM961 has a 128GB version write speed of only 600MB/s under the same material, and 1100MB/s for 256GB, almost double.

and the master will reasonably allocate storage tasks to flash memory particles to ensure that the amount of tasks in each unit is the same, so as to avoid using only a certain unit and causing the unit to die of overwork, the more people and the greater the strength, the larger the capacity, the fewer tasks divided equally, and the natural life expectancy will be long.

>128GB: Try to avoid hard disks of this capacity tend to have the worst performance due to the small number of memory modules. In addition, this capacity basically can’t do anything after installing the system, and upgrading to the next level doesn’t cost much.

250GB: This capacity is often used in the basic configuration of notebooks, daily office is basically enough, if the economy is tight, you can also match HDDs, but Xiaoshu recommends 500GB level.

500GB: Best value for money, although 1TB is more attractive, 500 GB is just right in terms of price and capacity. Both games and large files can be saved with HDDs, or deleted as soon as they are used up.

>1TB: If you are an enthusiast and need to store a large number of files or games, 1TB, 2TB, 4TB does not matter.

MLC particles:

Samsung 970 Pro (m.2 interface)

Samsung 860 Pro

(SATA interface)

TLC Particles:

Samsung 970 EVO Plus

Samsung 970 EVO

Western Digital SN750

Kioxia RD10/Toshiba RC500

Punkot M9Pe

Pukot M9 Plus

> SanDisk Extreme Speed Series

Intel 760P

Western Digital SN550

cold knowledge

” 1, SSD only refers to a physical form of hard disk, the principle and technology of SSD we use on the computer is no different from the built-in storage of today’s mobile phones, are flash memory + main control.

2, the era of traditional hard drives is not over. According to statistics, 85% of the world’s devices still only use mechanical hard disks, and most of the rest are a mix and match of SSDs and HDDs, and only SSD devices are only a few. SSD shipments are expected to surpass HDDs until 2021.

3、This article does not charge any advertising fees! All product recommendations only represent Xiaoshu’s personal views, and you are welcome to refute them. harddriveSSD OEMdisco ssd